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  Bilge kagan’s Memorial Complex, The
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Bilge kagan’s Memorial Complex, The

735 AD

Historical definition

In old Turkic: Bilge qaγan. Bilge kagan was the governor of Turkic people in 717-734. He was born in Otuken on coast of Orkhon river in 683. He is a senior son of Kutlug (Elteris) kagan, brother of Kultegin. He together with his younger brother Kultegin created a great empire in nomad’s history thus keeping unity of Turkic ethnos.

Names

“Khosho Tsaidam”, “The Khosho tsaidam monument”, “The Bilge kagan monument”, “Bilge kagan Sacred place”, “The Memorial complex for Bilge kagan”

Location

The complex is located on left Orkhon riverside in 45 km to the north from the ancient city Karakorum, 400 km to a southwest from the present capital of Mongolia Ulaanbaatar, 500 m southeast of the Kultegin memorial complex at N47º20´ - E102º50´.

A stele, stone turtles, statues and other components are stored in warehouses. Bilge kagan’s and his wife’s stone sculptures are kept in The National Historical Museum of Mongolia. A square stone is on its site, and location of one statue is unknown.

Specification

The complex consists of following parts:

1. A quadrangular construction – 72 x 36 m

2. A mausoleum with four columns – 16х16 m

3. A stele – 3.45 х 1.74 х0.78 m

4. A stone turtle – 2.29 х 0.72 х 0.44 m

5. Bilge kagan’s marble statue

6. Bilge kagan wife’s marble statue

7. 8 stone statues

8. A square stone (14 tonne) with a hole 2.2 x 2.7 x 1.07 m, D=0.7 м

9. 4 stone boxes

10. 2 statues of lions

11. 2 statues of sheep

12. Balbal stones (the erected stone sequence) more than 256, they last up to 2300 m.

The Bilge kagan memorial complex was set within an enclosure. The walls decorated inside with pictures.

The stele was set into the stone turtle. The inscribed stone has twisted dragon at its top. There is an image of ibex right on the center of the top. The ibex is the sign of kagans. Turkic inscriptions are on all three faces and two sides of the stele. Mourning words of the Chinese emperor of Tan dynasty are on the back of the stele.

Size

Height of the stele – 3.33 m, width is 1.32 m, and thickness is 0.46 m.

Researches

N.M.Jadrintsev, the member of the Geographical Society of Russian Imperial Academy 120, researched and reported for the first time. After that it was published in the Atlas of Finnish-Ugrian Scientific Council 162 as result of following expedition in 1891-93. Then it was published in the Atlas of Russian Science Academy 163.

The Bilge kagan inscriptions were translated to Russian and German languages by Russian linguist W.Radloff in 1894164.

Then V.Thomsen, H.N.Orhun, S.E.Malov, T.Tekin and other scientists made their new scientific translations and comments165. M.Zholdasbekov, G.Aidarov, K.Sartkozhauly conducted researches in studying language of the inscription and translation into Kazakh166.

Mongolian archeologist D.Bayar conducted detailed research of the stone sculptures and made architectural measurements and scientific descriptions 167.

Mongolian and Turkish archaeologists collaborated in comprehensive excavation and study of the area in 2000-2001. There were found precious products at the archeological excavations. Among these findings it is especially necessary to note a gold crown with jewels 170.

Full-text information
1.Ядринцев Н. Отчет экспедиции на Орхон. Глава I
2.Ядринцев Н. Отчет экспедиции на Орхон. Глава II
3.P. I - XXVI //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
4.P. XXVII - XLIX //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
5.P. 1 - 25 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
6.P. 26 - 48 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
7.Tab 1 - Tab 39 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
8.Tab 40 - Tab 66 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
9.P. I - LVII //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
10.P. LVIII - LXX //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
11.Выпуск второй. (Табл. VI, XXVII, XXXVI, LIII, LXI, LXIII, LXXI-LXXXII. Съ двумя маршрутами Орхонской Экспедиціи) //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
12.Малов С.Е. Памятники древнетюркской письменности. Тексты и исследования. – М., Ленинград, Издательствно Академии наук СССР, 1951
13.Радлов В.В., Меліоранскій П.М. Древне-Тюркскіе памятники Кошо-Цайдамъ.
14.Радлов В.В. Предварительный отчет.
15.Радлов В.В. Предварительный отчет о результатах экспедиции для археологического исследования бассейна р. Орхона //Сборник трудов Орхонской экспедиции, I, Санкт-Петербург, 1892. С. 1-54
16.Васильев Д.Д. Памятники тюркской рунической письменности азиатского ареала. //Советская тюркология, 1976. – № 1. – С.71-81.
17.Васильевъ В.Н. Орхонскіе памятники
18.Левин Н.П. Предварительный отчет члена Орхонской экспедиции Н.П.Левина //Отчет Орхонской экспедиции. Приложение V., 1892
19.Ядринцев Н. Отчет и дневник о путешествии по Орхону и в Южный Хангай в 1891 г. //Сборник трудов Орхонской экспедиции, V, Санкт-Петербург, pp. 1-54.
20.Ядринцев Н. Предварительный отчет об исследованиях по р.Толе, Орхону Южномъ Хангае
21.Клеменц Д.А. Приложение I. Письмо Д.А.Клеменца на имя академика Радлова //Отчет орхонской экспедиции
22.Christina Franken. Die Brennöfen im Palastbezirk von Karakorum //Dschingis Khan und seine Erben
23.Hans-Georg Hüttel. Der Palast des Ögedei Khan-Die Ausgrabungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts im Palastbezirk von Karakorum
24.Hans-Georg Hüttel. Karakorum-Eine historische Skizze
25.Hans-Georg Hüttel. MDKE-Die Mongolisch-Deutsche Karakorum-Expedition.
26.Peter Zieme. Die Alttürkischen Reiche in der Mongolei //Dschingis Khan und seine Erben
27.Edouard Chavannes. Documents sur les Tou-Kiue Occidentaux
The basic idea of creating the electronic historical and cultural fund was based on issue of The Oriental Studies Section of The Institute of Oriental Studies named after Suleimenov in 2005 under the govermental program "Cultural Heritage": "Қазақстан тарихы туралы түркі деректемелері" сериясының 2-томы Н.Базылхан "Көне түрік бітіктастары мен ескерткіштері (Орхон, Енисей, Талас)" Алматы: Дайк-Пресс. 2005, 252 б. +144 бет жапсырма.
Chief Editors:
doctor of history sciences Prof. M.Abuseitova
doctor of philology sciences Prof. B.Bukhatuly.
We appreciate The Director of The Institute of Oriental Studies Meruert Abuseitova for her help.

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