Kultegin was a military leader of Turks. He was born in Otuken on coast of Orkhon river in 685. Kultegin is second son of Qutlug (Elteris) kagan and younger brother of Bilge kagan118. Kultegin is the most eminent leader in nomad’s history, one of the most outstanding persons. There was no one who could resist his sword at that time. When Kultegin was 7 years old, his father Kutlug (ruled in 680-692) had died. Kultegin with his brother Bilge overthrow Bogu kagan (Kapaghan’s brother) in 716 and Bilge sat on the throne (716-734).
“Khocho Tsaidam”, “Hoshoo tsaidam”, “The Khocho tsaidam monument”, “The Kultegin monument”
The memorial complex is located on left Orkhon riverside in 45 km north from an ancient Karakorum city, in 400 km southwest from Ulaanbaatar, the present capital of Mongolia at N47º33´ - E102º49´.
A stele, a square stone, stone supports are on the site . Other components are kept in museum warehouses. A head of Kultegin’s marble statue is kept in the Mongolian Archeologic Institute, and face of a head of his wife’s marble statue is stored in the National Historical Museum, Mongolia. A stone sculpture with bent right knee is kept in the Hermitage, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
The complex consists of following parts:
1. A quadrangular construction /67 x 31 m/
2. A mausoleum with four columns of size 13х13 m, and a square dome inside, size 5х5.85 m
3. A stele – 3.35х130-132х46 m
4. A stone turtle – 2.26 x 1.33 x 0.57 m
5. A marble statue of Kultegin
6. A marble statue of Kultegin’s wife
7. 10 stone statues
8. A square stone with a hole (weight is 14 tonne) 2.2 x 2.7 x 1.07 m, D=0.7 m
9. 4 stone boxes
10. 2 statues of lions
11. 2 statues of sheep
12. Balbal stones (the erected stone sequence) more than 256, they last up to 2300 m.
Chinese sources say that the Kultegin memorial complex has been set within an enclosure. The walls decorated inside with pictures describing Kultegin’s life.
The stele is made from a blue marble stone. There are totally 68 lines of Turkic inscription on three front sides of the stele. There is a Chinese text on the back of the stele.
Height of the stele is 3.33 m, width is 1.32 m and thickness is 0.46 m.
N.M.Jadrintsev 120, the member of the Geographical Society of Russian Imperial Academy, researched and published it. After that it was published in the Atlas of Finnish-Ugrian Scientific Council 121 as result of following expedition in 1891-93. Then it was published in the Atlas of Russian Science Academy 122.
V.Thomsen found a clue to read the Turkic inscriptions using Chinese text of the Kultegin stele. First he read words “Tengri”, “Kultegin” and “Turk”.
Then Russian linguist W.Radloff 123 translated the text of the Kultegin inscription to Russian and German in 1894. Then V.Thomsen, H.N.Orhun, S.E.Malov, T.Tekin, G.Aidarov, B.Bazylhan, A.S.Amanzholov and other scientists made their new scientific translations and comments 124.
The Mongolian-Czech joint archeological expedition leading by N.Ser-Odzhav conducted excavations and elaborated researches 125 in 1958. They made a general plan of the complex.
Mongolian archeologist D.Bayar conducted detailed research of the stone sculptures and made architectural measurements and scientific descriptions 127. G.Musabaev, K.Myrzaliev, K.Omiraliev, M.Zholdasbekov, G.Aidarov, K.Sartkozhauly129 have provided huge work in translation inscriptions into Kazakh. More works are published on scientific and literary translations of Kultegin inscription to German, Russian, English, French, Mongolian, Turkish, Kirghiz and other languages 130.