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  Tonyukuk’s Memorial Complex, The
Definition Texts Pictures Copies Sizes

Tonyukuk’s Memorial Complex, The

730-731

Historical definition

In old Turkic: Tuňuquq. Tonyukuk was a wise chamberlain, an adviser to the kagans: Elteris Kapagan (692-716) and Bilge (716-734). He was born (?) on coast of Tuul river (in old Turkic Tuγula // Toγula) in 646. Chinese sources say, that he have been father-in-law of Bilge kagan. Tonyukuk died in 731-732 at the age of 85 or 86.

Names

“The Bayan Tsogt monument”, “The Tonyukuk monument”

Location

The complex is located in “Tsagaa Ovoo” district in northwest from Bayan-Zurh mountain, in 65 km southeast from Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, at N47º21´ - E107º45´.

Some parts of two steles and a stone box are on the site. Other components are kept in warehouses. Two statues are transferred to the National Historical Museum of Mongolia.

Specification

The complex consists of:

1. A quadrangular construction.

2. A mausoleum with four columns, only kept places of columns.

3. 2 quadrangular wide stone boxes, one of them is 2.25x1.25m, and other is 1.7х1.7 m.

4. The first stele is made from light blue marble. The old Turkic inscription is stored almost completely.

5. The second stele is made from light grey quartz granite. Inscriptions are partially kept.

6. 8 stone sculptures.

7. Balbal stones, a chain directed to the east – 289 erected stones (last up to 1.3 km).

Researchers consider, that inscriptions on both steles of Tonyukuk have been written by himself.

Size

The first stele – 2.43 x 0.64 x 0.32 m, the second stele – 2.15 x 0.45-50 x 0.28 m.

Researches

D.A.Klements and E.A.Klements have published the complex of Tonyukuk in 1897 172. Specialist of Turkic philology W.Radloff received a paper copy of the steles and made the first translation in 1898.

The expedition leading by Mongolian scientist N.Ser-Odzhav 173 conducted archeological excavations on this complex in 1957. Mongolian archeologist D.Bayar researched stone sculptures of the complex and made architectural measurements and scientific descriptions 175.

W.Radloff, H.N.Orhun, M.Sprengling, S.E.Malov, P.Aalto, R.Ciraud, M.Ergin, G.Clauson, G.Aidarov, B.Bazylhan, T.Tekin176, etc. scientists conducted researches of the inscription.

Kazakh scientists conducted researches in 2001 and 2004.

Full-text information
1.P. I - XXVI //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
2.P. XXVII - XLIX //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
3.P. 1 - 25 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
4.P. 26 - 48 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
5.Tab 1 - Tab 39 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
6.Tab 40 - Tab 66 //Inscriptions de l’Orkhon. Rescueillies par l’Expédition Finnoise. 1890. Et publiées par la Société Finno-Ougrienne. Helsingfors, Imprimerie de la Société de Littérature Finnoise, 1892.
7.P. I - LVII //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
8.P. LVIII - LXX //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
9.Выпуск второй. (Табл. VI, XXVII, XXXVI, LIII, LXI, LXIII, LXXI-LXXXII. Съ двумя маршрутами Орхонской Экспедиціи) //Атласъ древностей Монголіи. Изданный по поручению Императорской Академіи Наукъ В.В.Радловымъ. //Труды Орхонской экспедиціи. – Санктпетербургъ, Типография Императорской Академіи Наукъ, 1892.
10.Ramstedt, G. J. & J. G. Grano & P. Aalto. Materialien zu den Altturkischen Inschriften der Mongolei //Gesammelt von G. J. Ramstedt, J. G. Grano und Pentti Aalto. JSFOu 60-7,91 p., incl. many plates
11.Клеменц Д.А. Приложение I. Письмо Д.А.Клеменца на имя академика Радлова //Отчет орхонской экспедиции
12.Васильев Д.Д. Памятники тюркской рунической письменности азиатского ареала. //Советская тюркология, 1976. – № 1. – С.71-81.
13.Баттулга Ц. Монголын руни бичгийн бага дурсгалууд. Улаанбаатар. - 2005 (1)
14.Баттулга Ц. Монголын руни бичгийн бага дурсгалууд. Улаанбаатар. - 2005 (2)
15.Баттулга Ц. Монголын руни бичгийн бага дурсгалууд. Улаанбаатар. - 2005 (3)
16.Edouard Chavannes. Documents sur les Tou-Kiue Occidentaux
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